Photo by Hacienda la Esmeralda
以下是咖啡風味筆記中通常出現的 5 個層面：
1. 香氣- Aroma
香氣是在品嚐咖啡之前和期間，從鼻子中體驗到的。香調描述了咖啡氣味之外的獨特特徵，來自現實生活的感受。例如，耶加雪菲豆以帶有一絲花香或柑橘香而聞名。較深的烘焙通常帶有巧克力、焦糖或堅果的香味……或者像是星巴克濃縮咖啡飲料，有一些輕微的焦味。在一個各式的咖啡香氣與其他 4 個層面一起合作，創造一個極佳的交響樂作品。
2. 酸度- Acidity
酸度是咖啡品鑑師使用的一個技術性術語，表示明亮，乾淨的酸味，通常與柑橘類水果有關，通常會增加整體風味。咖啡可以具有高酸度，但也可以具有殘留的甜味或豐富度，產生滑順的尾韻。酸度不應與 “酸味“ 混淆，“酸味“ 指與低品質豆相關的整體令人不快的味道。低酸咖啡往往口感更滑順，或帶有一些苦味，就像巧克力中可能發現到的那種。
3. 身體/嘴巴的感受- Body/Mouth Feel
4. 風味- Flavor
風味的複雜性和微妙之處, 讓一些咖啡成為超級明星, 並將其他降級為“日常” 咖啡。可以將風味註解視為描述風味的某些特性，而不是直接將咖啡與該產品進行比較。你會看到針對特定水果、糖、巧克力、花、茶或堅果名稱的提及；但是，如果你看到“李子汁“，不要指望嚐到李子汁的味道——相反的，應該期待李子汁中的一些特殊品質，例如一種獨特的酸甜口味。
許多很棒的咖啡都與某些口味有關。耶加雪菲與莓果，有時是柑橘。藝妓與檸檬皮、哥倫比亞豆與堅果、焦糖和巧克力，以及 Sidamo 與藍莓有關。較新的處理法，如蜜處理，和蘭姆酒桶浸漬，會產生額外的味覺，例如葡萄酒和威士忌的味道。
5. 餘味- Aftertaste
與葡萄酒一樣，有些咖啡乾淨清脆，幾乎沒有餘味。其他有豐富的悠長尾韻。 Barden, 巴登是我最喜歡的台灣產咖啡豆之一（來自雲林縣），具有強烈的苦味，然後回甘有甜美的餘味。由於這些特點，它是我最喜歡的台灣咖啡之一。
You’ve probably noticed those “odd” tasting notes on your single origin coffee bag. Wondering what’s up with that? Let’s break down the purpose and methods coffee graders use to describe coffee.
Notes are just notes, not songs
Remember, the main flavor in coffee is–COFFEE. Think of that as the ”Song”. Songs are made up of many notes, some high, some low, some harmony, some dissonant, etc.
Coffee graders are trained in sensory science, to use real world flavor experiences to describe something that’s incredibly complex, identifying the closest real life equivalent what they find in the coffee they’re tasting. This is generally based on standardized taste properties. The result is a series of notes that add color and depth to the “song”.
Here are the 5 aspects that generally appear in Coffee Notes:
Aroma is what’s experienced in the nose both before and during coffee tasting. Aroma notes describe unique characteristics beyond a coffee smell, drawn from real life sensations. For example, Yirgacheffe beans are known for having a hint of floral or citrus. Darker roasts frequently feature chocolate, caramel or nutty aromas…or just a slightly burnt smell in the case of Starbucks espresso drinks. In a great coffee aroma works together with the other 4 aspects to create a great symphonic work.
Acidity is a technical term used by coffee graders to refer to a bright, clean, tartness, frequently associated with citrus fruit, that adds to the overall flavor, generally. A coffee can have a high acidity but also a residual sweetness or richness that creates smooth finish. Acidity shouldn’t be confused with ”sour”, which refers to an overall unpleasant flavor associated with poor bean quality. Low-acid coffees tend to be smoother or possess some bitterness, as might be found in chocolate.
3. Body/Mouth Feel
When you drink coffee you’ll quickly notice whether or not it has an elegant, pleasing, balanced overall taste with smooth finish. It may fee kind of thin––a modest note of flavor that peters out, or it may be especially vibrant and intense in your mouth.
Flavors are the complexities and subtleties that makes some coffees superstars and relegates others to “everyday” status. Think of flavor notes as describing some property of the reported flavor, rather than directly comparing the coffee to that product.
You’ll see references to specific fruits, sugars, chocolate, flowers, tea, or nuts; but, if you see ”plum juice”, for example, don’t expect to taste plum juice––rather, expect some special quality found in plum juice, a unique sweet-sour taste, for example.
Many great coffees coffees are associated with certain tastes. Yirgacheffe is associated with berry and sometimes citrus, Geisha with lemon zest, Colombian beans with nuts, caramel, and chocolate, and Sidamo with blueberries. Newer processing methods such as honey and rum barrel processing create additional taste sensations, such as a wine and whiskey notes.
As with wine, some coffees are clean and crisp, with little aftertaste. Others have a rich long finish. Bardem, one of my favorite Taiwan-grown coffee beans (from Yunlin County), has a strongly bitter taste that resolves into a sweet aftertaste. It’s one of my favorite Taiwan coffees because of those characteristics.
How each batch of beans is roasted and freshness of the green beans used has a marked effect on resulting flavor. Finding a roaster that respects the ideal flavor profiles of each bean and works to bring out these qualities is extremely important.